Subdissociative-dose ketamine (SDK) provides effective analgesia with lower rates of unwanted side effects when administered as a slow IV infusion. However, safety and efficacy studies have excluded geriatric patients until now, when Dr. Sergey Motov and colleagues strike again. SDK offers a much-needed pain management strategy for moderate to severe pain in this population who are often not ideal candidates for opioid analgesia.
Nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin are both recommended by the IDSA guidelines as first-line options in the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis due to their low resistance rates and minimal collateral damage. However, deciding which to choose is often based on convenience or habit, rather than supported by literature. This study was performed to compare sustained clinical resolution and microbiologic response between these two agents in middle-aged women with uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections.
Epistaxis is a common emergency department (ED) presentation, particularly in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents. Traditional remedies for bleeding include local vasoconstrictors, silver nitrate, and anterior nasal packing (ANP), each with variable efficacy. In recent years tranexamic acid (TXA) applied topically has gained popularity due to its efficacy, minimal systemic absorption lending to a low side-effect profile, and ease of use for the patient and provider (Zahed, Am J Emerg Med 2013; Ker, Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013). In this recently published study, Zahed et al narrowed their focus to explore clinical efficacy of topical TXA in patients on antiplatelet agents (aspirin, clopidogrel, or both).
In the U.S., intravenous acetaminophen (IV APAP) has made its way into some emergency departments as part of a multi-modal pain management approach, in part due to a perception of more rapid and effective pain control compared to the oral/rectal routes. In an effort to reduce opioid use, IV APAP seemingly has the potential to increase the number of non-opioid options such as ketorolac, lidocaine, and ketamine. Indeed, in some post-surgery literature, IV APAP has demonstrated a reduction in opioid use. The utility of IV APAP (compared to PO/PR) in the ED is unclear as there is a paucity of head-to-head efficacy studies comparing IV vs PO therapy… until now.